Burgeoning population and climate change are among the most critical challenges facing the 21st century. Both have critical implications for groundwater resources, especially in many developing countries where resources are already under pressure. Due to low rainfall and high evaporation in parts of the Middle East and North Africa, groundwater is not being renewed, andÃ¿groundwater laid down up to 10,000 years ago is literally being mined for irrigation, often very inefficiently. Over recent decades, groundwater levels have fallen dramatically in key grain-growing regions like the American Great Plains and the North China Plain. As the population grows and emerging economies like China and India demand more food, especially water intensive meat products, agricultural demand for water is set to increase. The rapid shift of population from the countryside to the cities is also adding to this pressure; most old wells in Beijing are now dry. Pollution from industry, agriculture and shanty towns is destroying many groundwater resources; some could take 50 years to clean up even with strict and immediate controls.
This volume looks at the technical, socio-economic and political problems being faced, and at the developments in groundwater science and management that may help create a sustainable future for our planet.
This book is the result of a long-term co-operative research and professional development programme between the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), Mexico, and the University of Salford, UK. It provides the design basis for the fabrication of small and large scale commercial absorption heat pump systems, and includes a comprehensive treatment of the economics of heat pump systems. It charts the development of heat pump technology from theoretical principles to the operation of practical systems for the purification of water, both for human consumption and a wide variety of industrial purposes.
Recent technical innovations and significant cost reductions have sharply increased the potential for using Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) technology in municipal wastewater treatment. MBR technology displays several advantages compared to the traditional activated sludge processes, such as high effluent quality, limited space requirement and with the possibility of a flexible and phased extension of existing waste water treatment plants. Membrane Bioreactors for Municipal Wastewater Treatment describes the results of a comparative research programme involving four leading membrane suppliers: Kubota (Japan), Mitsubishi (Japan), X-Flow (Netherlands) and Zenon (Canada). Each supplier provided a pilot to represent a suitable scale - right up to full scale. These pilots were operated and optimised in the course of the research programme to achieve the best operating window under different operating regimes. The research focussed on the functionality of the membrane, the biological treatment, membrane fouling, achieved effluent quality, and system operability as well as other factors. In a number of side studies the required pre-treatment, membrane fouling/cleaning, energy usage, effluent quality and sludge processing were also addressed. The comparative pilot research was carried out by DHV Water on location at the wastewater treatment plant at Beverwijk in the Netherlands.
When you are looking to start a diet and feel better, one of the smartest things that you can do is to do a detox. There are a wide variety of different types of detoxes out there, steaming from those that involve drinking nothing but a special concoction of liquids and spices, to those that involve eating only certain types of foods. For those who are looking for a detox cleanse, it is important to look at the options that are out there so that one will be able to find one that is right for your specific diet. As always talk to your doctor before starting a detox.
The drinking water and wastewater industries are interested in developing a better understanding of sources of fecal contamination. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers the potential to apportion the contribution of various animal groups to this contamination. However, while there are many methods available there is no clear indication as to the most appropriate approach. There has been little systematic comparison of methods and only a few blind trials, and issues of reproducibility, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, resolution, and robustness need to be addressed. There is confusion among potential end-users and some disagreement among scientists. Therefore, due to the uncertainty surrounding the most appropriate tools and applications of MST, a workshop of 45 experts representing water and wastewater utilities, academia, state and federal government agencies, medical institutions, and private laboratories was convened in San Antonio, Texas over a three-day period (February 16 - 18, 2005). The overall objective of the workshop was to identify the knowledge gaps and research needs for application of MST technologies by the wastewater and drinking water industries.
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