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Recent technical innovations and significant cost reductions have sharply increased the potential for using Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) technology in municipal wastewater treatment. MBR technology displays several advantages compared to the traditional activated sludge processes, such as high effluent quality, limited space requirement and with the possibility of a flexible and phased extension of existing waste water treatment plants. Membrane Bioreactors for Municipal Wastewater Treatment describes the results of a comparative research programme involving four leading membrane suppliers: Kubota (Japan), Mitsubishi (Japan), X-Flow (Netherlands) and Zenon (Canada). Each supplier provided a pilot to represent a suitable scale - right up to full scale. These pilots were operated and optimised in the course of the research programme to achieve the best operating window under different operating regimes. The research focussed on the functionality of the membrane, the biological treatment, membrane fouling, achieved effluent quality, and system operability as well as other factors. In a number of side studies the required pre-treatment, membrane fouling/cleaning, energy usage, effluent quality and sludge processing were also addressed. The comparative pilot research was carried out by DHV Water on location at the wastewater treatment plant at Beverwijk in the Netherlands.
This volume collects essays from academics and practitioners from a diversity of areas and perspectives in order to discuss water security at various levels and to illuminate the central idea of water security: its focus on the individual. Beginning with the big picture, this book aims to illustrate the depth of the water security crisis and its interconnections with other aspects of societal development. It particularly draws a connection to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and discusses that challenges faced in meeting the 17 sustainability development goals (SDG) by the year 2030. Moving from international to domestic and community perspectives, this book provides a unique analysis of issues and solutions to the water issues we face today in light of the ever looming global changes brought on by climate change.
Over the past few decades the recognition of our common need for water has increased, as policymakers have sought to place more focus on the individual within policy. After the recognition of water and sanitation as a fundamental human right by the United Nations General Assembly in 2010, there is increasing recognition of the individual as the building block for the struggle for water security. This reality also intersects with adverse impacts of global climate change, and the book responds to the broader question: will clean and safe water be available where we need it and when we need it in the future?
Laser processing of solid materials has been commonly performed in gas ambient. Having the workpiece immersed into liquid, having a liquid film on it, or soaking the material with liquid gives several advantages such as removal of the debris, lowering the heat load on the workpiece, and confining the vapour and plasma, resulting in higher shock pressure on the surface.
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