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This book presents advanced methods to analyse and clean pollutants, such as nanotechnology to treat water, techniques to remediate building materials, and bioindicators. It is very important that the understanding of these methods are brought to the attention of scientists, as cities and ecosystems are still polluted by toxic compounds despite efforts to clean the planet.
The growing concerns over availability of clean water have been elucidated in this insightful book. Water pollution is a significant problem globally that requires ongoing investigation and revision of water resource policy at all levels - from international level to individual aquifers and wells. It has been implied that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people on a daily basis. In addition to the severe water pollution problems in developing countries, industrialized countries keep struggling with pollution problems as well. Water is commonly referred to as polluted when it is flawed by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support human usage, such as drinking water, and/or undergoes a marked change in its capability to support its constituent biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena like volcanoes, algae blooms, storms and earthquakes also cause notable changes and shifts in the water quality and the ecological status of water. In course of time, most water pollutants are carried by rivers into the oceans.
Two methods for the detection of important human pathogens, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori, were investigated: a fiber optic biosensor, and real time PCR. The mechanism for specific detection in both methods is recognition of specific DNA sequences in the target organisms. The biosensor that was used, the Analyte 2000, was originally developed for the detection of chemicals. It utilizes a fiber optic wave guide that propagates an evanescent light wave of very specific wavelength. The light excites fluorescent molecules bound to the waveguide, but not in the bulk solution, which theoretically enhances signal while reducing background interference. Attempts to develop this system for the detection of DNA were not successful due to poor detection of the target molecules. An assay analogous to a sandwich immunoassay was designed for use on the Analyte 2000. Specific oligonucleotide probes were designed to bind to the waveguides via biotin-streptavidin interaction, and were used to capture the target DNA. Pure target DNA representing unique genes in the organisms were synthesized by PCR. Detection of captured DNA was then attempted using an oligonucleotide detection probe designed to bind to the target. Two detection systems were employed: an indirect signal amplification system based on biotin-tyramide deposition, or direct detection of fluorescent signal from Cy-5 molecules. In all experiments performed there was very little difference between the signal generated with or without the target molecules. Many experiments were conducted to attempt to identify reasons for the poor signal. Signal was only of any significance when target amplicons were internally labeled with Cy-5 by PCR. Real time PCR as a method to detect the pathogens was also investigated. Though the PCR technique itself is very rapid, DNA extraction and purification requires preparation time. Filtration of up to one liter of well water, followed by concentration and "cleaning" Helicobacter pylori cells by immunomagnetic separation, was used to detect H. pylori seeded in a water source. Following cell lysis, the extracted DNA could be used directly in conventional PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene to detect less than 265 cells per liter of water. DNA purification was not required for this level of detection. Initial studies to amplify lysed cells by real time PCR indicated that an incorrect product was made. When purified DNA was used for real time PCR, the correct product was produced from DNA representing as few as 100 cells. This publication can be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
How do you organize a big project? See how these kids plan to clean up a park.
Hoping to heal a growing riff, Helen and Frieda plan a weekend at a luxury resort; when the battered body of an old friend is found on the beach, the interlude becomes a full murder investigation.
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