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Laser processing of solid materials has been commonly performed in gas ambient. Having the workpiece immersed into liquid, having a liquid film on it, or soaking the material with liquid gives several advantages such as removal of the debris, lowering the heat load on the workpiece, and confining the vapour and plasma, resulting in higher shock pressure on the surface.
Recent technical innovations and significant cost reductions have sharply increased the potential for using Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) technology in municipal wastewater treatment. MBR technology displays several advantages compared to the traditional activated sludge processes, such as high effluent quality, limited space requirement and with the possibility of a flexible and phased extension of existing waste water treatment plants. Membrane Bioreactors for Municipal Wastewater Treatment describes the results of a comparative research programme involving four leading membrane suppliers: Kubota (Japan), Mitsubishi (Japan), X-Flow (Netherlands) and Zenon (Canada). Each supplier provided a pilot to represent a suitable scale - right up to full scale. These pilots were operated and optimised in the course of the research programme to achieve the best operating window under different operating regimes. The research focussed on the functionality of the membrane, the biological treatment, membrane fouling, achieved effluent quality, and system operability as well as other factors. In a number of side studies the required pre-treatment, membrane fouling/cleaning, energy usage, effluent quality and sludge processing were also addressed. The comparative pilot research was carried out by DHV Water on location at the wastewater treatment plant at Beverwijk in the Netherlands.
This book presents advanced methods to analyse and clean pollutants, such as nanotechnology to treat water, techniques to remediate building materials, and bioindicators. It is very important that the understanding of these methods are brought to the attention of scientists, as cities and ecosystems are still polluted by toxic compounds despite efforts to clean the planet.
In clear, easy-to-grasp language, the author covers many of the topics that you will need to know in order to win your dream job and be the first in line for a promotion.
This book brings together research into the process of stream acidification and its impact on Welsh surface waters, carried out over the past decade or so. It is perhaps surprising that not until the 1980's was clear evidence of stream acidification assembled. In Wales, concerns over pollution had focused water quality sampling principally on the areas of traditional heavy industry and large urban popula- tions served by inadequate sewerage systems and sewage disposal arrange- ments. Mistakenly, it had been assumed that, with its prevailing westerly winds, Wales would receive precipitation substantially unpolluted by the industrial and urban emissions from Britain and mainland Europe. Assurance of the high quality of Welsh upland streams, the traditional nursery ground of salmonids, was eroded particularly by studies in the vicinity of Llyn Brianne reservoir in the catchment of the River Tywi of Central Wales. These demonstrated a clear correspondence between the biological quality and fisheries of streams in the catchment and aspects of stream chemistry, par- ticularly pH, aluminium and calcium on the one hand, and catchment land- use on the other. It is salutary to record that the first signals were of an inexplicable failure of the runs of migratory salmonids into the upper catchment, occupied by the Llyn Brianne reservoir and its influent streams, and the failure to restore the fishery by re-stocking with eggs and fry. Only then did the significance of the recent decline in some other upland lake and reservoir fisheries in Wales become apparent.
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