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The objective of this research was to investigate the clogging process in riverbank filtration (RBF) systems and identify factors significant to yield. Specific objectives included the following:
High-capacity RBF systems have been constructed in a wide range of hydrogeologic settings, and data from these sites provide insight to capacity-limiting factors in RBF systems. Field data for temperature, head, and riverbed flux rates into the riverbed were collected at Louisville, allowing estimates of riverbed hydraulic conductivity to be calculated as a function of distance from the well. These data indicated variations in riverbed hydraulic conductivity resulting from riverbed clogging and the development of unsaturated conditions. The impact of temperature on specific capacity was evaluated at four sites where adequate operating data were available. Wide variations in water viscosity associated with temperature resulted in the doubling of specific capacity from winter to summer, indicating that the rated capacity of RBF systems should be considered as a range between coldest and warmest water conditions. Information from this project was summarized into a set of recommendations for utilities considering the design of an RBF system for future water supply.
- Evaluate commonly available stream and aquifer characteristics from RBF systems with regards to system yield
- Collect data from the RBF system in Louisville and apply the information to clogging theory
- Provide recommendations regarding the design of future RBF systems with regards to riverbed clogging
- Data from the participating sites were compiled to allow easy comparison to future RBF sites.
This book focuses on sterilizing grade filters in the biopharmaceutical industry, emphasizing practical applications of universal and dependable operational protocols, integrity testing, and troubleshooting to streamline the production and preparation of pharmaceuticals.
Addresses the complexities of globalizing redundancy in filtration
Enabling educated developmental, procedural, and regulatory judgments to be made in the manufacturing of sterile health care products, Sterile Filtration
considers how many filters should be in the process stream
examines the existence of nanobacteria and viable but nonculturable organisms
covers pore size designations, distributions, architecture, and numbers
discusses the latest findings in bubble point and diffuse flow measurements
describes pre- and postfiltration, up- and downstream testing, and after-stream sterilizations
details wetting liquid, polymer, temperature, and water purity effects
explains sieve retention, size exclusion, adsorptive sequestrations, charge-related phenomena, gravitational settling, and interference factors in liquids and gases
outlines filter validation, requirements, and operational specifics
Advocating separation in addition to physical destruction of microorganisms, Sterile Filtration is a reference essential for pharmaceutical scientists; biotechnologists; microbiologists; virologists; process and chemical engineers; plant, production, validation, and quality control managers in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate school students in these disciplines.
Mathcad A Tool For Infiltration Modeling
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